The structure of the pike is adapted for fast movements. Her body shape is Chondo-elongated (arrow-shaped) with far protruding flat jaws, well dissecting the water. Dorsal and pre-caudal fins moved closer to caudal. The wide and powerful caudal fin, together with the dorsal and pre-caudal, gives the pike an opportunity to make instant and strong forward throws during wave-like movements of the back of the body and when striking with the tail. Her body is covered with small scales and a large amount of mucus, which also contributes to the speed of movement.
Pike coloring is associated with the environment. The adaptability of its color to the environment serves as its means of defense against enemies and attacks on prey. Therefore, the color of pike is not constant: in small rivers and lakes with a sandy bottom it is golden; in deep bodies of water, lakes and ponds with a silty bottom H darker; in heavily overgrown sedge and water lilies, ponds of H are greenish-golden. The color of large pikes is usually darker than the color of small ones. An interesting fact about the changing color of pike is given by prof. P. A. Manteuffel in the newspaper Izvestia No. 45 dated February 20, 1935, in an article entitled Blind Pike in the large, brightly lit aquarium of the Zoo, Professor writes, several pikes live. All of them, with the exception of one completely black, light yellowish color. Fishermen stay for a long time near this aquarium and very often you can hear their statements that the black pike is a different breed. This is wrong. The fact is that the color of the fish is inconsistent and depends on the power of the light: the brighter the light, the brighter the fish. This happens because the pigment grains scattered in the skin cells gather from the action of light into small piles and as a result the general dark color changes. This explains the light yellowish color of the pike living in a brightly lit aquarium. But why, then, does one of these pikes, living in the same conditions as the rest, always remain black? If you look closely, it is easy to notice that in both her eyes H thorn. It turns out that it has already been proved by many researchers that the light affects the pigment not through the skin, but through the eyes, irritating the nervous system. It is interesting to note that blind pike is well-fed. She catches a fish floating past her, guided by the fluctuation of the surrounding water.
Anglers divide the pike by their appearance: on the bottom H short, thick, with a dark golden-greenish coloration, living mainly in the pits, and on the grass D runner, brightly colored, with lighter golden hues, caught most often from snags, grass, etc. However, this fishing division of pikes does not mean that the bottom and grass are individuals of different breeds.
Lake and pond pikes are shorter and thicker than river ones. Male pikes are more lightweight than females (at the same age). It is very difficult to distinguish the shape of the male from the female (except for spawning time). During spawning, the male takes on a brighter color, and the female is distinguished by a swollen abdominal cavity.
The pike has a well-developed nervous system. Nerve cells quickly perceive environmental changes (for example, water temperature, current strength, etc.)
Many anglers consider the pike to be smart and bold. The pike’s brain is very poorly developed. Pike can not make, although small, but independent and meaningful decisions. All decisions on external and internal irritations are made by the pike on the basis of the reflex actions characteristic of her from her birthday, and conditioned reflexes acquired through life experience. The expressions found in the fishing literature that the pike is clever, cunning, etc., should be considered conditional. Pike’s eyes are well developed. At close range, she sees them perfectly, and not only in the water, but also outside the water. It is known that a light ray, passing from water to air, is refracted; as a result, the edge of the reservoir does not obscure objects located at a certain distance from the coast from the fish.
Due to the fact that the lens of the pike’s eye has a large bulge and protrudes forward, its horizontal angle of view (including eye movement) reaches 160 × 170 ° and vertically about 150 °, so that the fish, even when the body is stationary, is able to see most of the environment .
Vision and lateral organ provide the pike with accuracy of direction to the target when moving it quickly in pursuit of prey. The lateral line (lateral organ) is located on the scales in the form of black dots-holes and stretches from head to tail; the pike also have them on the head of Ch on the upper and lower jaws. The role of the sideline in swimming pike is huge. The side line of the pike feels: the direction of the flow of water and its strength, according to changes in the water current Ч proximity of obstacles in its path камней stones, driftwood, blockages, etc .; according to the weakest vibrations of the surrounding water, she senses approaching prey and accordingly directs her body.
Interestingly built in pike teeth. The lower jaw is studded with fang-shaped teeth of various sizes, rarely standing in one row. In the middle (on the sides) of the jaw the fangs are large, smaller towards the ends.