Light and color vision in fish
Illumination of the aquatic environment to a large extent determines the motor and nutritional activity of fish, and color vision is used by them to recognize aquatic and plant organisms by their color. In some fish, color vision serves to reflexively change color for protective purposes.
Daily changes in the intensity of illumination are the cause of daily vertical migrations of fish. For each fish species, there is a certain limit to solar radiation, above which the conditions for them become unfavorable, and then they sink to a depth or take shelter in shaded places and stop eating. This is confirmed by the behavior of fish in cloudy weather – they remain active throughout the daylight hours. By the way, invertebrates, crustaceans, leading a bottom or bottom lifestyle, do not tolerate direct sunlight. Therefore, at dawn, they leave their shelters and actively move in search of food, and with the first rays of the sun entering the water, they hasten to hide. Perhaps this is one of the reasons for the activity of biting in the morning dawns and the approach of large fish to the shores where invertebrates and crustaceans accumulate.
From the foregoing, several practical conclusions can be drawn.
Fishing with a cloudless sky and high sun setting will not bring success; if there are bites, they are random. Experienced anglers at this time rest in anticipation of an evening bite. Sometimes the conditions on the pond allow you to somewhat extend fishing after the morning dawn, if you go to the shadow side. In general, all other things being equal, it is better to catch from the east coast.
The presence of color vision in fish requires the angler to take care of masking gear. Fishing lines, leashes, sinkers, hooks by color should merge with the surrounding underwater objects, then the fish will not beware of them.
As for the color of the bait, it is difficult to recommend something here. You can only summarize the views of anglers.
Most fish are attracted by red nozzles, possibly because different worms and some larvae (like bloodworms) they feed on are of the same color. But such nozzles are effective only at depths of up to 5 meters. At great depths, you can switch to yellow and yellowish-greenish baits. Yellow in tone is closer to red, and green in itself attracts fish, since they collect larvae and other invertebrates and crustaceans from the green leaves of underwater plants, and some fish also eat young shoots of plants. The green color for the fish is apparently more familiar.
Fishermen noticed that some fish from under the ice are better at pecking on multi-colored nozzles. In particular, perches are well taken with marmyshka with cambric or beads in this combination of colors: black – white – black; bream and breeding: red – black – red; roach: white – black – white. What this explains is still a mystery.
Only one pattern has been reliably identified. In conditions of poor visibility caused by insufficient illumination or clouding of water, fish are better noticed and are more likely to take lighter baits and baits, and with good visibility – darker ones. At shallow depths, it is better to use matte spinners, since shiny ones reflect sunlight more strongly and thereby scare away fish. For the same reason, many anglers recommend painting the bottom of the float in bright colors, as in this case it is less noticeable against a bright sky.
Information on how artificial light affects fish at night is extremely scarce and often contradictory. According to the observations of some fishermen, eel, carp and common carp are afraid of light at night and go offshore. Burbot, catfish and roach are suitable for the light of the fire, and underwater light attracts raw. Zander is indifferent to light.
Attempts are known to attract fish to illuminate a fishing spot with underwater electric lights lowered to the bottom in a glass sealed container. But for some reason, whether such backlighting gives an effect, its supporters are silent.
In recent years, interest in luminous lures has revived again. Some deep-sea marine fish have luminescent organs designed to recognize relatives, scare off enemies, and lure victims. Luminous mollusks, jellyfish, bacteria and other organisms also live in the seas. But to obtain natural luminous lures is difficult, and sometimes impossible. A case has been described in the literature when White Sea fishermen used barked herring as lure, on which luminous bacteria settled. Perhaps this led the fishermen to the idea of using artificial luminous lures, the glow of which would resemble a natural one.
The technology for making luminous lures is quite simple. To do this, use the compositions FKP-3 or FKP-03-K, sold in stores Soyuzreaktiv. The duration of their glow after short-term exposure to daylight or electric light – from half an hour to two to three hours. One part of the luminous composition is mixed with two to three parts of nitro-varnish or glue BF-2, BF-6.