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Rubella Carps

Pathogen
According to the modern views of Russian researchers (Epstein, Peshkov and Goncharov), the causative agent of rubella is a filtering virus, the properties of which are still not well understood.

The evidence that the primary rubella pathogen belongs to the group of filtered viruses is:

1) the possibility of infection of carp with filtrate obtained from the treatment of the skin of a sick carp;

2) a serological reaction — bacterial-viral agglutination;

3) the presence in the protoplasm of the skin cells of the sick carp of a special spherical shape of inclusions with a diameter of 1-3 c.

The filtrate for infection is prepared as follows. Grind the skin of a sick carp and grind it in a mortar. The contents of the mortar are spread in the meat and peptone broth (MRB) and filtered through Birkenfeld candles. The resulting filtrate is rubbed into the damaged skin of the carp.

To establish a serological reaction, carp skin is crushed, ground in a mortar and physiological saline is added to this mass. Then, tissue and bacteria are separated by centrifugation. To the resulting liquid add bacteria that do not give spontaneous agglutination. Filtered viruses accumulate (absorbed) on the surface of bacteria. It turns out a complex virus – {- bacterium. Complex (B + B) is diluted in blood serum. taken from an obviously sick carp, and in another test tube with serum from the test carp, and the serum is diluted in physiological saline (one drop of serum per 9 drops of saline, in other words, 1: 10 and then to 1: 20). A positive reaction produces an agglutination reaction — bundles of glued bacteria. In addition, a control is placed with serum from a healthy carp and a control with bacteria on which the virus was deposited.

Along with the filtering virus, carps suffering from rubella often also have bacteria, among which Achromobacter punctatum (Pseudomonas punctatum ascitae) is more often found. A number of researchers (Epstein, Peshkov and Goncharov) do not consider this bacterium as the primary pathogen of rubella, but only as a secondary (second) infection that complicates the disease. . But some researchers still consider Achromobacter punctatum seu Psaudomonas punctatum the primary causative agent of rubella and claim that the disease can not occur without the participation of this bacterium.

Achromobacter punctatum has the appearance of a stick with one polar tourniquet (monotrich), the bacterium is mobile, negatively stained according to Gram, dilutes gelatin with a funnel, on agar it gives milky color, round convex colonies and on Peshnova medium black colonies. This bacterium is widespread in the water of ponds and other bodies of water. According to some researchers, Achromobacter punctatum under certain circumstances passes in the body of a carp from a saprophytic state to parasitism.

Thus, the etiology of this disease is no reason to consider completely clarified. However, there is more evidence that the filtering virus is the primary causative agent of rubella.

Symptoms, course of the disease and pathology of the disease. Rubella of carps was originally described as two different diseases: infectious abdominal dropsy (ascites) and ulcerative rubella. Subsequently, most researchers came to the conclusion that there is only one disease, rubella, but it proceeds clinically in two main forms: 1) in the form of dropsy and 2) in the form of ulcers. In a typical course of the disease in a sick carp, first the signs inherent in the form of dropsy appear, and at the end of the disease, ulcers also form. But sometimes signs of dropsy and ulcers can occur at the same time. A typical rubella course has the following order and change of clinical signs.

The incubation period of the disease lasts from 3 to 25 days and depends on a number of factors and especially on the ambient temperature, as well as on the virulence of the pathogen and the stability of the fish. In the middle zone of Russia, the duration of the incubation period is on average two to three weeks, and in the conditions of the North Caucasus this period is reduced to eight or even three days.

The clinical picture of the disease begins with intestinal inflammation. The first sign of the disease is the discharge by sick carp through the anus of the mucous, dense, cylindrical, translucent, sausage-like cords. If you pick up a sick carp and gently press on its abdomen, then the above cords will be extruded from the anus. Similarly, if you place such a carp in the aquarium, then after a while at the bottom of the aquarium you can notice the sausage cords highlighted by the fish. At the same time, carps become sluggish, approach the shore and easily let themselves be pulled together. The intestine becomes lethargic and the anus is crater-like bulging outward. In the future, the causative agent of the disease penetrates through the walls of the intestine and reaches the liver. The liver for some time delays the penetration into the body of a contagious principle (a barrier property of the liver). In this case, the liver and gall bladder increase in size.

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